0D Control Volume Class¶
The ControlVolume0DBlock block is the most commonly used Control Volume class, and is used for systems where there is a wellmixed volume of fluid, or where variations in spatial domains are considered to be negligible. ControlVolume0DBlock blocks generally contain two StateBlocks  one for the incoming material and one for the material within and leaving the volume  and one StateBlocks.

class
idaes.core.control_volume0d.
ControlVolume0DBlock
(*args, **kwargs)¶ ControlVolume0DBlock is a specialized Pyomo block for IDAES nondiscretized control volume blocks, and contains instances of ControlVolume0DBlockData.
ControlVolume0DBlock should be used for any control volume with a defined volume and distinct inlets and outlets which does not require spatial discretization. This encompases most basic unit models used in process modeling.
Parameters:  rule (function) – A rule function or None. Default rule calls build().
 concrete (bool) – If True, make this a toplevel model. Default  False.
 ctype (str) – Pyomo ctype of the block. Default  “Block”
 default (dict) –
Default ProcessBlockData config
 Keys
 dynamic
 Indicates whether this model will be dynamic, default  useDefault. Valid values: { useDefault  get flag from parent, True  set as a dynamic model, False  set as a steadystate model}
 has_holdup
 Indicates whether holdup terms should be constructed or not. Must be True if dynamic = True, default  False. Valid values: { True  construct holdup terms, False  do not construct holdup terms}
 property_package
 Property parameter object used to define property calculations, default  useDefault. Valid values: { useDefault  use default package from parent model or flowsheet, PropertyParameterObject  a PropertyParameterBlock object.}
 property_package_args
 A ConfigBlock with arguments to be passed to a property block(s) and used when constructing these, default  None. Valid values: { see property package for documentation.}
 reaction_package
 Reaction parameter object used to define reaction calculations, default  None. Valid values: { None  no reaction package, ReactionParameterBlock  a ReactionParameterBlock object.}
 reaction_package_args
 A ConfigBlock with arguments to be passed to a reaction block(s) and used when constructing these, default  None. Valid values: { see reaction package for documentation.}
 auto_construct
 If set to True, this argument will trigger the auto_construct method which will attempt to construct a set of material, energy and momentum balance equations based on the parent unit’s config block. The parent unit must have a config block which derives from CONFIG_Base, default  False. Valid values: { True  use automatic construction, False  do not use automatic construciton.}
 initialize (dict) – ProcessBlockData config for individual elements. Keys are BlockData indexes and values are dictionaries described under the “default” argument above.
 idx_map (function) – Function to take the index of a BlockData element and return the index in the initialize dict from which to read arguments. This can be provided to overide the default behavior of matching the BlockData index exactly to the index in initialize.
Returns: (ControlVolume0DBlock) New instance

class
idaes.core.control_volume0d.
ControlVolume0DBlockData
(component)[source]¶ 0Dimensional (NonDiscretised) ControlVolume Class
This class forms the core of all nondiscretized IDAES models. It provides methods to build property and reaction blocks, and add mass, energy and momentum balances. The form of the terms used in these constraints is specified in the chosen property package.

add_geometry
()[source]¶ Method to create volume Var in ControlVolume.
Parameters: None – Returns: None

add_phase_component_balances
(has_rate_reactions=False, has_equilibrium_reactions=False, has_phase_equilibrium=False, has_mass_transfer=False, custom_molar_term=None, custom_mass_term=None)[source]¶ This method constructs a set of 0D material balances indexed by time, phase and component.
Parameters:  has_rate_reactions – whether default generation terms for rate reactions should be included in material balances
 has_equilibrium_reactions – whether generation terms should for chemical equilibrium reactions should be included in material balances
 has_phase_equilibrium – whether generation terms should for phase equilibrium behaviour should be included in material balances
 has_mass_transfer – whether generic mass transfer terms should be included in material balances
 custom_molar_term – a Pyomo Expression representing custom terms to be included in material balances on a molar basis. Expression must be indexed by time, phase list and component list
 custom_mass_term – a Pyomo Expression representing custom terms to be included in material balances on a mass basis. Expression must be indexed by time, phase list and component list
Returns: Constraint object representing material balances

add_phase_energy_balances
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Method for adding energy balances (including kinetic energy) indexed by phase to the control volume.
See specific control volume documentation for details.

add_phase_enthalpy_balances
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Method for adding enthalpy balances indexed by phase to the control volume.
See specific control volume documentation for details.

add_phase_momentum_balances
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Method for adding momentum balances indexed by phase to the control volume.
See specific control volume documentation for details.

add_phase_pressure_balances
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Method for adding pressure balances indexed by phase to the control volume.
See specific control volume documentation for details.

add_reaction_blocks
(has_equilibrium=None)[source]¶ This method constructs the reaction block for the control volume.
Parameters:  has_equilibrium – indicates whether equilibrium calculations will be required in reaction block
 package_arguments – dictlike object of arguments to be passed to reaction block as construction arguments
Returns: None

add_state_blocks
(information_flow=<FlowDirection.forward: 1>, has_phase_equilibrium=None)[source]¶ This method constructs the inlet and outlet state blocks for the control volume.
Parameters:  information_flow – a FlowDirection Enum indicating whether information flows from inlettooutlet or outlettoinlet
 has_phase_equilibrium – indicates whether equilibrium calculations will be required in state blocks
 package_arguments – dictlike object of arguments to be passed to state blocks as construction arguments
Returns: None

add_total_component_balances
(has_rate_reactions=False, has_equilibrium_reactions=False, has_phase_equilibrium=False, has_mass_transfer=False, custom_molar_term=None, custom_mass_term=None)[source]¶ This method constructs a set of 0D material balances indexed by time and component.
Parameters:   whether default generation terms for rate (has_rate_reactions) – reactions should be included in material balances
  whether generation terms should for (has_equilibrium_reactions) – chemical equilibrium reactions should be included in material balances
  whether generation terms should for phase (has_phase_equilibrium) – equilibrium behaviour should be included in material balances
  whether generic mass transfer terms should be (has_mass_transfer) – included in material balances
  a Pyomo Expression representing custom terms to (custom_mass_term) – be included in material balances on a molar basis. Expression must be indexed by time, phase list and component list
  a Pyomo Expression representing custom terms to – be included in material balances on a mass basis. Expression must be indexed by time, phase list and component list
Returns: Constraint object representing material balances

add_total_element_balances
(has_rate_reactions=False, has_equilibrium_reactions=False, has_phase_equilibrium=False, has_mass_transfer=False, custom_elemental_term=None)[source]¶ This method constructs a set of 0D element balances indexed by time.
Parameters:   whether default generation terms for rate (has_rate_reactions) – reactions should be included in material balances
  whether generation terms should for (has_equilibrium_reactions) – chemical equilibrium reactions should be included in material balances
  whether generation terms should for phase (has_phase_equilibrium) – equilibrium behaviour should be included in material balances
  whether generic mass transfer terms should be (has_mass_transfer) – included in material balances
  a Pyomo Expression representing custom (custom_elemental_term) – terms to be included in material balances on a molar elemental basis. Expression must be indexed by time and element list
Returns: Constraint object representing material balances

add_total_energy_balances
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Method for adding a total energy balance (including kinetic energy) to the control volume.
See specific control volume documentation for details.

add_total_enthalpy_balances
(has_heat_of_reaction=False, has_heat_transfer=False, has_work_transfer=False, has_enthalpy_transfer=False, custom_term=None)[source]¶ This method constructs a set of 0D enthalpy balances indexed by time and phase.
Parameters:   whether terms for heat of reaction should (has_heat_of_reaction) – be included in enthalpy balance
  whether terms for heat transfer should be (has_heat_transfer) – included in enthalpy balances
  whether terms for work transfer should be (has_work_transfer) – included in enthalpy balances
  whether terms for enthalpy transfer due to (has_enthalpy_transfer) – mass transfer should be included in enthalpy balance. This should generally be the same as the has_mas_trasnfer argument in the material balance methods
  a Pyomo Expression representing custom terms to (custom_term) – be included in enthalpy balances. Expression must be indexed by time and phase list
Returns: Constraint object representing enthalpy balances

add_total_material_balances
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Method for adding a total material balance to the control volume.
See specific control volume documentation for details.

add_total_momentum_balances
(*args, **kwargs)[source]¶ Method for adding a total momentum balance to the control volume.
See specific control volume documentation for details.

add_total_pressure_balances
(has_pressure_change=False, custom_term=None)[source]¶ This method constructs a set of 0D pressure balances indexed by time.
Parameters:   whether terms for pressure change should be (has_pressure_change) – included in enthalpy balances
  a Pyomo Expression representing custom terms to (custom_term) – be included in pressure balances. Expression must be indexed by time
Returns: Constraint object representing pressure balances

initialize
(state_args=None, outlvl=0, optarg=None, solver='ipopt', hold_state=True)[source]¶ Initialization routine for 0D control volume (default solver ipopt)
Keyword Arguments:  state_args – a dict of arguments to be passed to the property package(s) to provide an initial state for initialization (see documentation of the specific property package) (default = {}).
 outlvl – sets output log level of initialization routine
 optarg – solver options dictionary object (default=None)
 solver – str indicating whcih solver to use during initialization (default = ‘ipopt’)
 hold_state – flag indicating whether the initialization routine should unfix any state variables fixed during initialization, default  True. Valid values: True  states variables are not unfixed, and a dict of returned containing flags for which states were fixed during initialization, False  state variables are unfixed after initialization by calling the release_state method.
Returns: If hold_states is True, returns a dict containing flags for which states were fixed during initialization.

model_check
()[source]¶ This method executes the model_check methods on the associated state blocks (if they exist). This method is generally called by a unit model as part of the unit’s model_check method.
Parameters: None – Returns: None

release_state
(flags, outlvl=0)[source]¶ Method to release state variables fixed during initialization.
Keyword Arguments:  flags – dict containing information of which state variables were fixed during initialization, and should now be unfixed. This dict is returned by initialize if hold_state = True.
 outlvl – sets output level of logging
Returns: None

ControlVolume0DBlock Equations¶
This section documents the variables and constraints created by each of the methods provided by the ControlVolume0DBlock class.
 \(t\) indicates time index
 \(p\) indicates phase index
 \(j\) indicates component index
 \(e\) indicates element index
 \(r\) indicates reaction name index
add_geometry¶
The add_geometry method creates a single variable within the control volume named volume indexed by time (allowing for varying volume over time). A number of other methods depend on this variable being present, thus this method should generally be called first.
Variables
Variable Name  Symbol  Indices  Conditions 

volume  \(V_t\)  t  None 
Constraints
No additional constraints
add_phase_component_balances¶
Material balances are written for each component in each phase (e.g. separate balances for liquid water and steam). Physical property packages may include information to indicate that certain species do not appear in all phases, and material balances will not be written in these cases (if has_holdup is True holdup terms will still appear for these species, however these will be set to 0).
Variables
Variable Name  Symbol  Indices  Conditions 

material_holdup  \(M_{t,p,j}\)  t, p, j  has_holdup = True 
phase_fraction  \(\phi_{t,p}\)  t, p  has_holdup = True 
material_accumulation  \(\frac{\partial M_{t,p,j}}{\partial t}\)  t, p, j  dynamic = True 
rate_reaction_generation  \(N_{kinetic,t,p,j}\)  t, p ,j  has_rate_reactions = True 
rate_reaction_extent  \(X_{kinetic,t,r}\)  t, r  has_rate_reactions = True 
equilibrium_reaction_generation  \(N_{equilibrium,t,p,j}\)  t, p ,j  has_equilibrium_reactions = True 
equilibrium_reaction_extent  \(X_{equilibrium,t,r}\)  t, r  has_equilibrium_reactions = True 
phase_equilibrium_generation  \(N_{pe,t,p,j}\)  t, p ,j  has_phase_equilibrium = True 
mass_transfer_term  \(N_{transfer,t,p,j}\)  t, p ,j  has_mass_transfer = True 
Constraints
material_balances(t, p, j):
The \(N_{custom, t, p, j}\) term allows the user to provide custom terms (variables or expressions) in both mass and molar basis which will be added into the material balances, which will be converted as necessary to the same basis as the material balance (by multiplying or dividing by the component molecular weight). The basis of the material balance is determined by the physical property package, and if undefined (or not mass or mole basis), an Exception will be returned.
If has_holdup is True, material_holdup_calculation(t, p, j):
where \(\rho_{t, p ,j}\) is the density of component \(j\) in phase \(p\) at time \(t\)
If dynamic is True:
Numerical discretization of the derivative terms, \(\frac{\partial M_{t,p,j}}{\partial t}\), will be performed by Pyomo.DAE.
If has_rate_reactions is True, rate_reaction_stoichiometry_constraint(t, p, j):
where \(\alpha_{r, p. j}\) is the stoichiometric coefficient of component \(j\) in phase \(p\) for reaction \(r\) (as defined in the PhysicalParameterBlock).
If has_equilibrium_reactions argument is True, equilibrium_reaction_stoichiometry_constraint(t, p, j):
where \(\alpha_{r, p. j}\) is the stoichiometric coefficient of component \(j\) in phase \(p\) for reaction \(r\) (as defined in the PhysicalParameterBlock).
add_total_component_balances¶
Material balances are written for each component across all phases (e.g. one balance for both liquid water and steam). Most terms in the balance equations are still indexed by both phase and component however. Physical property packages may include information to indicate that certain species do not appear in all phases, and material balances will not be written in these cases (if has_holdup is True holdup terms will still appear for these species, however these will be set to 0).
Variables
Variable Name  Symbol  Indices  Conditions 

material_holdup  \(M_{t,p,j}\)  t, p, j  has_holdup = True 
phase_fraction  \(\phi_{t,p}\)  t, p  has_holdup = True 
material_accumulation  \(\frac{\partial M_{t,p,j}}{\partial t}\)  t, p, j  dynamic = True 
rate_reaction_generation  \(N_{kinetic,t,p,j}\)  t, p ,j  has_rate_reactions = True 
rate_reaction_extent  \(X_{kinetic,t,r}\)  t, r  has_rate_reactions = True 
equilibrium_reaction_generation  \(N_{equilibrium,t,p,j}\)  t, p ,j  has_equilibrium_reactions = True 
equilibrium_reaction_extent  \(X_{equilibrium,t,r}\)  t, r  has_equilibrium_reactions = True 
mass_transfer_term  \(N_{transfer,t,p,j}\)  t, p ,j  has_mass_transfer = True 
Constraints
material_balances(t, j):
The \(N_{custom, t, j}\) term allows the user to provide custom terms (variables or expressions) in both mass and molar basis which will be added into the material balances, which will be converted as necessary to the same basis as the material balance (by multiplying or dividing by the component molecular weight). The basis of the material balance is determined by the physical property package, and if undefined (or not mass or mole basis), an Exception will be returned.
If has_holdup is True, material_holdup_calculation(t, p, j):
where \(\rho_{t, p ,j}\) is the density of component \(j\) in phase \(p\) at time \(t\)
If dynamic is True:
Numerical discretization of the derivative terms, \(\frac{\partial M_{t,p,j}}{\partial t}\), will be performed by Pyomo.DAE.
If has_rate_reactions is True,, rate_reaction_stoichiometry_constraint(t, p, j):
where \(\alpha_{r, p. j}\) is the stoichiometric coefficient of component \(j\) in phase \(p\) for reaction \(r\) (as defined in the PhysicalParameterBlock).
If has_equilibrium_reactions argument is True, equilibrium_reaction_stoichiometry_constraint(t, p, j):
where \(\alpha_{r, p. j}\) is the stoichiometric coefficient of component \(j\) in phase \(p\) for reaction \(r\) (as defined in the PhysicalParameterBlock).
add_total_element_balances¶
Material balances are written for each element in the mixture.
Variables
Variable Name  Symbol  Indices  Conditions 

element_holdup  \(M_{t,e}\)  t, e  has_holdup = True 
phase_fraction  \(\phi_{t,p}\)  t, p  has_holdup = True 
element_accumulation  \(\frac{\partial M_{t,e}}{\partial t}\)  t, e  dynamic = True 
elemental_mass_transfer_term  \(N_{transfer,t,e}\)  t, e  has_mass_transfer = True 
Expressions
elemental_flow_in(t, p, e):
elemental_flow_out(t, p, e):
where \(n_{j, e}\) is the number of moles of element \(e\) in component \(j\).
Constraints
element_balances(t, e):
The \(N_{custom, t, e}\) term allows the user to provide custom terms (variables or expressions) which will be added into the material balances.
If has_holdup is True, elemental_holdup_calculation(t, e):
where \(\rho_{t, p ,j}\) is the density of component \(j\) in phase \(p\) at time \(t\)
If dynamic is True:
Numerical discretization of the derivative terms, \(\frac{\partial M_{t,e}}{\partial t}\), will be performed by Pyomo.DAE.
add_total_enthalpy_balances¶
A single enthalpy balance is written for the entire mixture.
Variables
Variable Name  Symbol  Indices  Conditions 

energy_holdup  \(E_{t,p}\)  t, p  has_holdup = True 
phase_fraction  \(\phi_{t,p}\)  t, p  has_holdup = True 
energy_accumulation  \(\frac{\partial E_{t,p}}{\partial t}\)  t, p  dynamic = True 
heat  \(Q_{t}\)  t  has_heat_transfer = True 
work  \(W_{t}\)  t  has_work_transfer = True 
enthalpy_transfer  \(H_{transfer,t}\)  t  has_enthalpy_transfer = True 
Expressions
heat_of_reaction(t):
where \(Q_{rxn, t}\) is the total enthalpy released by both kinetic and equilibrium reactions, and \(\Delta H_{rxn, r}\) is the specific heat of reaction for reaction \(r\).
Parameters
Parameter Name  Symbol  Default Value 

scaling_factor_energy  \(s_{energy}\)  1E6 
Constraints
enthalpy_balance(t):
The \(E_{custom, t}\) term allows the user to provide custom terms which will be added into the energy balance.
If has_holdup is True, enthalpy_holdup_calculation(t, p):
where \(u_{t, p}\) is the internal energy density (specific internal energy) of phase \(p\) at time \(t\)
If dynamic is True:
Numerical discretization of the derivative terms, \(\frac{\partial E_{t,p}}{\partial t}\), will be performed by Pyomo.DAE.
add_total_pressure_balances¶
A single pressure balance is written for the entire mixture.
Variables
Variable Name  Symbol  Indices  Conditions 

deltaP  \(\Delta P_{t}\)  t  has_pressure_change = True 
Parameters
Parameter Name  Symbol  Default Value 

scaling_factor_pressure  \(s_{pressure}\)  1E4 
Constraints
pressure_balance(t):
The \(\Delta P_{custom, t}\) term allows the user to provide custom terms which will be added into the pressure balance.