Cubic Equations of State#
This property package implements a general form of a cubic equation of state which can be used for most cubictype equations of state. This package supports phase equilibrium calculations with a smooth phase transition formulation that makes it amenable for equation oriented optimization. The following equations of state are currently supported:
PengRobinson
SoaveRedlichKwong
Flow basis: Molar
Units: SI units
State Variables:
The state block uses the following state variables:
 Total molar flow rate (mol/s) 
flow_mol
 Temperature (K) 
temperature
 Pressure (Pa) 
pressure
 Mole fraction of the mixture 
mole_frac_comp
Inputs#
When instantiating the parameter block that uses this particular state block, 1 optional argument can be passed:
valid_phase
 "Liq" or "Vap" or ("Liq", "Vap") or ("Vap", "Liq")
The valid_phase
argument denotes the valid phases for a given set of inlet conditions. For example, if the user knows a priori that the it will only be a single phase (for example liquid only), then it is best not to include the complex flash equilibrium constraints in the model. If the user does not specify any option, then the package defaults to a 2 phase assumption meaning that the constraints to compute the phase equilibrium will be computed.
Degrees of Freedom#
In general, the general cubic equation of state has a number of degrees of freedom equal to 2 + the number of components in the system (total flow rate, temperature, pressure and N1 mole fractions). In some cases (primarily inlets to units), this is increased by 1 due to the removal of a constraint on the sum of mole fractions.
General Cubic Equation of State#
All equations come from “The Properties of Gases and Liquids, 4th Edition” by Reid, Prausnitz and Poling. The general cubic equation of state is represented by the following equations:
where \(Z\) is the compressibility factor of the mixture, \(a_m\) and \(b_m\) are properties of the mixture and \(u\) and \(w\) are parameters which depend on the specific equation of state being used as show in the table below.
Equation 
\(u\) 
\(w\) 
\(Omega_A\) 
\(Omega_B\) 
\(kappa_j\) 

PengRobinson 
2 
1 
0.45724 
0.07780 
\((1+(1T_r^2)(0.37464+1.54226\omega_j0.26992\omega_j^2))^2\) 
SoaveRedlichKwong 
1 
0 
0.42748 
0.08664 
\((1+(1T_r^2)(0.48+1.574\omega_j0.176\omega_j^2))^2\) 
The properties \(a_m\) and \(b_m\) are calculated from component specific properties \(a_j\) and \(b_j\) as shown below:
where \(P_{c,j}\) and \(T_{c,j}\) are the component critical pressures and temperatures, \(y_j\) is the mole fraction of component \(j\), \(k_{ij}\) are a set of binary interaction parameters which are specific to the equation of state and \(\Omega_A\), \(\Omega_B\) and \(\kappa_j\) are taken from the table above. \(\omega_j\) is the Pitzer acentric factor of each component.
The cubic equation of state is solved for each phase via a call to an external function which automatically identifies the correct root of the cubic and returns the value of \(Z\) as a function of \(A\) and \(B\) along with the first and second partial derivatives.
VLE Model with Smooth Phase Transition#
The flash equations consists of the following equations:
At the equilibrium condition, the fugacity of the vapor and liquid phase are defined as follows:
The cubic equation of state is solved to find \(Z\) for each phase subject to the composition of that phase. Typically, the flash calculations are computed at a given temperature, \(T\). However, the flash calculations become trivial if the given conditions do not fall in the two phase region. For simulation only studies, the user may know a priori the condition of the stream but when the same set of equations are used for optimization, there is a high probability that the specifications can transcend the phase envelope and hence the flash equations included may be trivial in the single phase region (i.e. liquid or vapor only). To circumvent this problem, property packages in IDAES that support VLE will compute the flash calculations at an “equilibrium” temperature \(T_{eq}\). The equilibrium temperature is computed as follows:
where \(T_{eq}\) is the equilibrium temperature at which flash calculations are computed, \(T\) is the stream temperature, \(T_{1}\) is the intermediate temperature variable, \(T_{bubble}\) is the bubble point temperature of mixture, and \(T_{dew}\) is the dew point temperature of the mixture. Note that, in the above equations, approximations are used for the max and min functions as follows:
where \(\epsilon_1\) and \(\epsilon_2\) are smoothing parameters (mutable). The default values are 0.01 and 0.0005 respectively. It is recommended that \(\epsilon_1\) > \(\epsilon_2\). Please refer to reference 4 for more details. Therefore, it can be seen that if the stream temperature is less than that of the bubble point temperature, the VLE calculations will be computed at the bubble point. Similarly, if the stream temperature is greater than the dew point temperature, then the VLE calculations are computed at the dew point temperature. For all other conditions, the equilibrium calculations will be computed at the actual temperature.
Other Constraints#
Additional constraints are included in the model to compute the thermodynamic properties based on the cubic equation of state, such as enthalpies and entropies. Please note that, these constraints are added only if the variable is called for when building the model. This eliminates adding unnecessary constraints to compute properties that are not needed in the model.
All thermophysical properties are calculated using an ideal and residual term, such that:
The residual term is derived from the partial derivatives of the cubic equation of state, whilst the ideal term is determined using empirical correlations.
Enthalpy#
The ideal enthalpy term is given by:
The residual enthalpy term is given by:
Entropy#
The ideal entropy term is given by:
The residual entropy term is given by:
Fugacity#
Fugacity is calculated from the system pressure, mole fractions and fugacity coefficients as follows:
Fugacity Coefficient#
The fugacity coefficient is calculated from the departure function of the cubic equation of state as shown below:
Gibbs Energy#
The Gibbs energy of the system is calculated using the definition of Gibbs energy:
List of Variables#
Variable Name 
Description 
Units 


Total molar flow rate 
mol/s 

Mixture mole fraction indexed by component 
None 

Temperature 
K 

Pressure 
Pa 

Molar flow rate indexed by phase 
mol/s 

Mole fraction indexed by phase and component 
None 

Saturation or vapor pressure indexed by component 
Pa 

Isobaric molar heat capacity by phase 
J/mol/K 

Isochoric molar heat capacity by phase 
J/mol/K 

Molar density indexed by phase 
mol/m3 

Mass density indexed by phase 
kg/m3 

Molar enthalpy indexed by phase 
J/mol 

Molar enthalpy of mixture 
J/mol 

Molar entropy indexed by phase 
J/mol.K 

Molar entropy of mixture 
J/mol.K 

Fugacity indexed by phase and component 
Pa 

Fugacity coefficient indexed by phase and component 
None 

Molar Gibbs energy indexed by phase 
J/mol 

Heat capcity ratio by phase 


Isothermal speed of sound by phase 
m/s 

Isentropic speed of sound by phase 
m/s 

Molecular weight of mixture 
kg/mol 

Molecular weight by phase 
kg/mol 

Bubble point temperature 
K 

Dew point temperature 
K 

Bubble point pressure 
Pa 

Dew point pressure 
Pa 

Temperature at which the VLE is calculated 
K 
List of Parameters#
Parameter Name 
Description 
Units 


Type of cubic equation of state to use, from CubicEoS Enum 
None 

Reference pressure 
Pa 

Reference temperature 
K 

Pitzer acentricity factor 
None 

Binary interaction parameters for EoS (note that parameters are specific for a given EoS 
None 

Component molecular weights 
kg/mol 

Parameters for calculating component heat capacities 
varies 

Component standard heats of formation (used for enthalpy at reference state) 
J/mol 

Component standard entropies of formation (used for entropy at reference state) 
J/mol.K 

Component Antoine coefficients (used to initialize bubble and dew point calculations) 
bar, K 
Initialization#
 class idaes.models.properties.cubic_eos.cubic_prop_pack.CubicEoSInitializer(**kwargs)[source]#
Initializer for CubicEoS property packages.
This Initializer uses a sequential routine to initialize the property package using the following steps:
Initialize bubble and dew point calculations (if present)
Estimate vaporliquid equilibrium T_eq (if present)
Solve for phaseequilibrium conditions
Initialize all remaining properties
The Pyomo solve_strongly_connected_components method is used at each step to converge the problem.
Note that for systems without vaporliquid equilibrium the generic BlockTriangularizationInitializer is probably sufficient for initializing the property package.
 constraint_tolerance
Tolerance for checking constraint convergence
 output_level
Set output level for logging messages
 solver
Solver to use for initialization
 solver_options
Dict of options to pass to solver
 calculate_variable_options
Dict of options to pass to calc_var_kwds argument in solve_strongly_connected_components method. NOTE: models involving ExternalFunctions must set ‘diff_mode=differentiate.Modes.reverse_numeric’
Config Block Documentation#
 class idaes.models.properties.cubic_eos.cubic_prop_pack.CubicParameterData(component)[source]#
General Property Parameter Block Class
 class idaes.models.properties.cubic_eos.cubic_prop_pack.CubicStateBlock(*args, **kwds)#
 Parameters:
rule (function) – A rule function or None. Default rule calls build().
concrete (bool) – If True, make this a toplevel model. Default  False.
ctype (class) –
Pyomo ctype of the block. Default  pyomo.environ.Block
Config args
 parameters
A reference to an instance of the Property Parameter Block associated with this property package.
 defined_state
Flag indicating whether the state should be considered fully defined, and thus whether constraints such as sum of mass/mole fractions should be included, default  False. Valid values: { True  state variables will be fully defined, False  state variables will not be fully defined.}
 has_phase_equilibrium
Flag indicating whether phase equilibrium constraints should be constructed in this state block, default  True. Valid values: { True  StateBlock should calculate phase equilibrium, False  StateBlock should not calculate phase equilibrium.}
initialize (dict) – ProcessBlockData config for individual elements. Keys are BlockData indexes and values are dictionaries with config arguments as keys.
idx_map (function) – Function to take the index of a BlockData element and return the index in the initialize dict from which to read arguments. This can be provided to override the default behavior of matching the BlockData index exactly to the index in initialize.
 Returns:
(CubicStateBlock) New instance
 class idaes.models.properties.cubic_eos.cubic_prop_pack.CubicStateBlockData(*args, **kwargs)[source]#
An general property package for cubic equations of state with VLE.
 define_display_vars()[source]#
Method used to specify components to use to generate stream tables and other outputs. Defaults to define_state_vars, and developers should overload as required.